History of islamic republic of iran
Revolutionary Iran: A History of the Islamic Republic by Michael AxworthyA major new and definitive work by the author of Iran: Empire of the Mind Ayatollah Khomeinis return to Tehran in February 1979 was a key moment in post-War international politics. A large, well-populated and wealthy state suddenly committed itself to a quite new path: a revolution based on the supremacy of Islam and contempt for both superpowers. For over 30 years the Islamic Republic has resisted widespread condemnation, sanctions, and sustained attacks by Iraq in an eight-year war. Many policy-makers today share a weary wish that Iran would somehow just disappear as a problem. But with Irans continuing commitment to a nuclear programme and its reputation as a trouble-maker in Afghanistan, Lebanon and elsewhere, this is unlikely any time soon. The slow demise of the 2009 Green Revolution shows that Revolutionary Irans institutions are still formidable. About the author: Michael Axworthys Iran: Empire of the Mind established him as one of the worlds principal experts on this extraordinary country and in his new book, Revolutionary Iran, he has written the definitive history of this subject, one which takes full account of Irans unique history and makes sense of events often misunderstood by outsiders. Reviews: Balances scholarly precision with narrative flair ... Axworthy does the best job so far of describing the Iran-Iraq war ... He revisits, and convincingly reinterprets, defining moments of the Islamic republic ... [with] scholarly rigour and first-class analysis. Anyone interested in this most complex of revolutions would do well to read [this book] Economist An impressive exploration of Irans development since 1979 into an unpredictable pseudo-democracy ... [a] calm and literate portrait of the Islamic Republic Guardian If you were to read only one book on present-day Iran you could not do better than this ... Axworthy revokes the sound and fury of the revolution itself Ervand Abrahamian, Times Higher Education Packed with gobbets of information and policy advice on how to deal with Iran Telegraph [A] meticulously fair and scholarly work ... passages from Iranian authors little known in the west as well as references to both popular and arthouse cinema bring depth [and] richness ... moving and vivid ... a very fine work that deserves to be read by anyone interested in the Middle East Jason Burke, Observer Axworthy is a true Iranophile, learned in history and literature ancient and modern ... [A] subtle, lucid, and well-proportioned history ... his method casts theocracy in a refreshingly cold light, and embosses the Islamic Republics well-established subordination of faith to power Spectator
Revolutionary Iran: A History of the Islamic Republic by Michael Axworthy – review
The Muslim conquest of Persia — led to the end of the Sasanian Empire and the eventual decline of the Zoroastrian religion in Iran Persia. However, the achievements of the previous Persian civilizations were not lost, but were to a great extent absorbed by the new Islamic polity. Islam has been the official religion of Iran since then, except for a short duration after the Mongol raids and establishment of Ilkhanate. Iran became an Islamic republic after the Islamic Revolution of which ended the Persian monarchy. There was a slow but steady movement of the population toward Islam.
Iran is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and the Republic of Azerbaijan , [c] to the north by the Caspian Sea , to the northeast by Turkmenistan , to the east by Afghanistan and Pakistan , to the south by the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman , and to the west by Turkey and Iraq. Its central location in Eurasia and Western Asia, and its proximity to the Strait of Hormuz , give it geostrategic importance. Iran is home to one of the world's oldest civilizations ,   beginning with the formation of the Elamite kingdoms in the fourth millennium BCE. An Iranian rebellion established the Parthian Empire in the third century BCE, which was succeeded in the third century CE by the Sasanian Empire , a leading world power for the next four centuries. Arab Muslims conquered the empire in the seventh century CE, and the subsequent Islamization of Iran led to the decline of the once dominant Zoroastrian religion. Iran's major contributions to art, philosophy, and science spread throughout the Muslim world and beyond during the Islamic Golden Age. Over the next two centuries, a series of native Muslim dynasties emerged before the Seljuq Turks and the Ilkhanate Mongols conquered the region.
Although some might argue that the revolution is still ongoing not complete , its time span can be said to have begun in January with the first major demonstrations to overthrow the Shah empowered by external Anglo-American interests, both political as economical ,  and concluded with the approval of the new theocratic Constitution — whereby Khomeini became Supreme Leader  of the country — in December In between, Mohammad Reza Pahlavi fled Iran in January after strikes and demonstrations paralyzed the country, and on February 1, , Ayatollah Khomeini returned to Tehran to a greeting by several million Iranians.
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Outwardly, with a swiftly expanding economy and a rapidly modernizing infrastructure , everything was going well in Iran. But in little more than a generation, Iran had changed from a traditional, conservative , and rural society to one that was industrial, modern, and urban. The sense that in both agriculture and industry too much had been attempted too soon and that the government, either through corruption or incompetence, had failed to deliver all that was promised was manifested in demonstrations against the regime in The shah , weakened by cancer and stunned by the sudden outpouring of hostility against him, vacillated, assuming the protests to be part of an international conspiracy against him. Bakhtiar went into hiding, eventually to find exile in France, where he was assassinated in
One of the most dramatic changes in government in Iran's history was seen with the Iranian Revolution where Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi was overthrown and replaced by Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini. The patriotic monarchy was replaced by an Islamic Republic based on the principle of rule by Islamic jurists, or " Velayat-e faqih " , where clerics serve as head of state and in many powerful governmental roles. A pro- Western , pro- American foreign policy was exchanged for one of "neither east nor west", said to rest on the three "pillars" of mandatory veil hijab for women, and opposition to the United States and Israel. The leader of the revolution and founder of the Islamic Republic, Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini , was Iran's supreme leader until his death in During the era of the Islamic Republic, Iran has grown from 39 million to Some things remain much as they were under the monarchy.
T he Islamic Republic of Iran that emerged from the revolution of has lasted quite well. Thirty years on, and better late than never, Iran is a more prosperous country than under the Pahlavi monarchy overthrown in that turbulent year. Bled by a long and inconclusive war with Iraq between and , revolutionary Iran has kept aloof from the chaos on its borders, where three states the Soviet Union, Ba'athist Iraq and Afghanistan have disintegrated. Since the rise in of the price of oil, which makes up all but a fraction of the country's revenue, Iran has become more assertive, though it's not wholly clear to me what it is asserting. Yet, according to Michael Axworthy in his calm and literate portrait of the Islamic Republic, certain long-lived chickens are coming home to roost.